Field Pea

E.A. Oelke1, E.S. Oplinger2, C.V. Hanson1, D.W. Davis1, D.H. Putnam1, E.I. Fuller1, and C.J. Rosen1

1Departments of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Horticulture, Agricultural and Applied Economics, Soil Science and Center for Alternative Plant and Animal Products. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.
2Department of Agronomy, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences and Cooperative Extension Service, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706.
April, 1991.

Translation: Belorussian

I. History:

Field pea (Pisum sativum L.), a native of Southwest Asia, was among the first crops cultivated by man. Wild field pea can still be found in Afghanistan, Iran and Ethiopia. This crop has been long grown in the United States and historically, field pea was one of Wisconsin's best paying cash crops. In 1909, 78,000 acres were planted and part of eastern and northeastern Wisconsin led the country in field pea production. As market prices declined, partly the result of less costly imported field pea, production declined. Today, the countries leading in field pea production include the Soviet Union, China, India, Canada, and the United States. In the United States the largest acreages of field pea are in Washington, Idaho, Oregon, Minnesota and North Dakota. Plantings of dry field pea in 1989 in the United States was estimated to be over 30,000 acres and in Canada over 450,000 acres. Cultivation of field pea has lead to a gradual separation of types: those grown for vegetable use, those grown for seed and fodder, and the edible podded types which have evolved most recently.

II. Uses:

Over half the domestic field pea production goes to the dry pea market or for planting seed used by growers of fresh garden, frozen or canning field pea. The smooth, green- and yellow-seeded varieties are used for human consumption as dry split field pea. Field pea have high levels of the essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan, which are usually low in cereal grains. Consequently, field pea can supplement the low amount of protein present in food and feed processed from cereal grains. Field pea are used as protein concentrates for livestock and are popular pigeon feeds. Field pea flour is valued not only as a vegetable protein source but also, in part, due to its unique functional properties. The use of vegetable proteins as functional ingredients in the food industry is increasing and special attention has been given to the use of field pea because they are already an accepted part of the human diet throughout the world. The viscosity of slurried pea flours makes them useful in aqueous food systems.

Field pea also contain proteases, tannins, and lectins, etc. which may reduce livestock feed gain when present at too high a concentration in a diet. However, it has been shown that partial or complete replacement of soybean meal with pea screenings (in a barley diet for hogs) did not reduce growth rate or efficiency of feed conversion. Field pea may be grown as a forage crop, for hay, pasturage or silage. Field pea grown in a mixture with oat, barley or triticale yields more dry matter per acre than a straight pea culture and the field pea stand more erect which makes the crop easier to harvest. Protein content and feeding value of the forage is increased by the addition of peas to the seeding mixture. A mixture of 2/3 field pea and 1/3 oat can be seeded with alfalfa or clover as a companion crop. The highly populated stand reduces weed competition, allows for one or two alfalfa cuttings following the pealage harvest. Harvest is recommended when field pea is in full bloom and oat is beginning to head. In southern states, field pea is grown as a fall-sown cover and green manure crop. As a green manure crop, field pea returns approximately 25 lb/acre of nitrogen (N) to the soil. The cream-colored varieties commonly grown in Minnesota and Wisconsin are used for feed or as seed for forage production. The tender shoots of field pea may be cut and used as salad greens. A considerable proportion of field pea is exported, primarily to Europe.

III. Growth Habit:

Field pea is an annual herbaceous plant and the stems grow to a length of 2 to 4 ft. A leaf consists of one to three pairs of leaflets with a terminal, branched tendril. Leaves are pale green with a whitish bloom on the surface. At maturity, the plant is a prostrate vine.

Field pea is of the indeterminate (climbing) type or determinate (bush or dwarf) type. Flowers are borne on racemes arising in the axils of the leaves and are highly self-pollinated. In most varieties, the blossoms are reddish-purple or white. Pods are about three in. long and contain four to nine seeds. Seed may have a green, yellow or cream colored seed coat and are classified as such.

IV. Environment Requirements:

A. Climate:

A cool growing season is necessary for optimum field pea production (a mean temperature of 55o to 65oF). Hot weather during flowering causes the flowers to blast which results in reduced seed set. Field pea seedlings can withstand considerable frost exposure without damage. If frost injury does occur and the main shoot is killed, new shoots will originate from nodes below the soil surface. In the Pacific Northwest, winter varieties of field pea are planted in September. However, these varieties cannot survive winter temperatures common to Minnesota and Wisconsin.

In the Upper Midwest, field pea is a spring annual with a maturity of 95 to 100 days. Field pea requires the same length of growing season as wheat and is normally harvested in August. On average, it requires 60 days from planting until bloom, and 100 days to mature the dry seed. In temperate climates, where winters are severe, the crop is usually planted in the spring. Where there are little or no frosts, planting occurs in the late fall and early winter. Because high temperature during blossoming results in reduced seed set, production of field pea as a summer annual in the United States is limited to the northern states. In the tropics and subtropics, field pea is planted at high elevations where the temperatures remain cool. The moisture requirement for field pea is similar to that for cereal grains. Good rains and/or early irrigation, and no rain during pod fill and ripening is ideal. Field pea has been grown successfully throughout the Upper Midwest, particularly in the northern tier of states.

B. Soil:

Field pea can be grown on a wide range of soil types, from light sandy loams to heavy clays, but in any soil there must be good drainage as field pea does not tolerate soggy or water-soaked conditions. The soil pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.5.

C. Seed Preparation and Germination:

Field pea is capable of utilizing bacterially fixed atmospheric nitrogen. The specific bacterial association for nitrogen fixation in field pea and lentils is with the bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarium. If field pea is to be grown in a field for the first time, or have not been grown recently, inoculation of the seed with the proper Rhizobium, prior to planting, may increase nodulation. Inoculation may also be beneficial if the soil pH is below 5.7. Once inoculated, seed should be kept out of direct sunlight and planted as soon as possible because the inoculant will die if subjected to sunlight or drying. Seed treatments with a fungicide may harm the inoculant so it is important to first check the seed treatment label. Field trials have shown that the seed treatment fungicides, Thiram and Captan, do not significantly affect nodulation.

Pea seed germination rate increases with increasing temperature, but at temperatures greater than 64oF, the percentage of seeds germinating decreases (Table 1). The percentage of seedlings that emerge is dependent not only on germination, but on the soil environment. Seed and soil-borne pathogens may have a major effect on emergence. An extensive amount of research has been conducted on different seed treatments and treatment methods. Seed treatment with the fungicide, Baytan, can significantly improve emergence. Fungicide labels should be checked to see if a particular fungicide can be used on field pea.

Table 1. Emergence of field pea seeds at different soil temperatures:
Soil Temperature (oF) 41 50 59 68 77 86 95
Percent Normal Seedlings 89 94 93 93 94 89 0
Days to Emergence 36 14 9 7 6 6 -
Source: Harrington and Minge (1954)

V. Cultural Practices:

A. Seedbed Preparation:

Field pea grows best when planted into a seedbed with a minimum amount of residue on the soil surface. In order to obtain good soil contact with the seed, seedbeds should be firm and well worked. Avoid seedbeds with large clods and do not work the soil too fine, or subsequent soil crusting following rains could cause emergence problems.

Fall plowing is recommended (unless erosion is a problem) to permit early spring planting. Cultivating the soil prior to planting aids in weed control and helps warm the soil.

B. Seeding Date:

Being a cool season crop, field pea cannot tolerate hot weather or drought stress during flowering, thus seeding early is important. Seeding should be as early in the spring as feasible provided soil temperature in the upper inch is over 40oF. In Minnesota and Wisconsin this ranges from mid-March to mid-April.

C. Method and Rate of Seeding:

Seed field pea with a grain drill 1 to 2 2 in. deep in rows 6 to 7 in. apart. Care must be taken to properly adjust the grain drill to prevent cracking the seed (cracked seed will not germinate).

Rate of seeding depends on the variety to be planted. Large-seeded varieties, such as Century should be seeded at a rate of 190 lb/acre. On average, a stand count of nine plants/sq ft is desirable. Field pea is not a strong competitor, therefore, poor germination or sowing at less than recommended rates may result in severe weed problems.

D. Fertility and Lime Requirements:

Well nodulated field pea does not require much added nitrogen. However, field pea grown on soils with less than 20 lb available nitrogen may benefit from 20 to 40 lb of nitrogen applied at seeding (Table 2). Over-application of nitrogen is usually not profitable and may suppress nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen fixation experiments utilizing a determinate field pea variety revealed no effect on early pod development, maximum growth rate or on maximum leaf area by the addition of starter N (NO3) at 22 or 45 lb/acre. N2 fixation in field pea increased during preflowering and flowering to a maximum of 9 lb/acre/day at 9 to 10 weeks after seedling emergence. The total accumulation of fixed N in field pea supplied with zero fertilizer N was 203 lb/acre.

Phosphorous and potassium are required by field pea in relatively large amounts and they should be added as required on the basis of soil test results (Table 2). Fertilizer may be broadcast in the spring during seedbed preparation or banded with the seed. Care must be taken to prevent direct contact between the seed and fertilizer because germinating field pea are extremely sensitive to high salt concentrations.

Sulphur is also required at a relatively high level to ensure adequate nitrogen fixation. Sulphur should be added on the basis of soil test recommendations. Application of lime is recommended on fields with a soil pH of 5.2 or lower.

Table 2. Fertilizer recommendations for filed pea.1
  Nitrogen (N) Phosophorus (P) Potassium (K)
Previous Crop Organic Matter Soil Test P Apply (P2O5) Soil Test K Apply (K2O)
  low high ---- lbs/A ---- ---- lbs/A ----
Corn, Potatoes, Sugarbeets 40 20 0-10 100 0-100 100
Small Grain, Soybeans 20 0 11-20 75 101-150 75
Alfalfa, Clover, Black Fallow 0 0 21-40 50 151-200 50
40+ 0 200+ 0
1Source: University of Minnesota AG-BU-0519 Soil Test Recommendations 1986.

E. Variety selection:

In Minnesota and Wisconsin, varieties of field pea with cream-colored seed are most commonly grown. Buyers have not encouraged production of green varieties because of bleaching at harvest time. Century, Lenca. Miranda, Paloma and Trapper produce seed of satisfactory cooking quality. Procon seed has not been tested for culinary quality but it may be used as a protein concentrate feed for livestock. Century, Lenca, Trapper, and Procon are also useful as forage crops and may be grown alone or in mixture with small grain for silage or feed grain.

Recommended Fieldpea Varieties:

Century - Medium in yield and maturity with long vines. Seeds are large and cream-colored. Released by Agriculture Canada, Ottawa in 1960.

Lenca - High in yield and medium in maturity and vine length. Seeds are medium in size and cream-colored. It is susceptible to powdery mildew. Released by Agriculture Canada, Morden, in 1979. Production of certified seed limited to Canada.

Miranda - Very high in yield, early, and very short. Seeds are very large and cream-colored. It is susceptible to powdery mildew. Released by Cebeco-Handelsraade of the Netherlands. Seed is distributed by Wilbur-Ellis Co., Spokane, WA 99206. Sale of seed is regulated by U.S. Variety Protection Act.

Paloma - Very high in yield, early and very short. Seeds are large and cream-colored. Released by Cebeco-Handelsraade of the Netherlands.

Procon - Very high seed yield with 25% protein. This variety is very early, blooming in 59 days and maturing in 99 days. It is short vined but not dwarf with white flowers. Seeds are large and cream-colored and are used for protein concentrate in livestock rations. Released by Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in 1986.

Trapper - Low yielding, late maturity, long vined variety. Seeds are small and cream-colored. Suitable for birdfeed markets that require small, "yellow" seed. Released by Agriculture Canada, Morden in 1970.

Belinda- Very high seed yield, early, and very short. Seeds are large and cream-colored. Developed by Cebeco-Handelsraade of the Netherlands. Seed distributed by International Seeds Inc., Halsey, OR 97348.

Tipu - High seed yield, medium maturity, with long vines. It has white flowers and yellow or cream-colored seed. It has a semi-leafless plant type with normal stipules and leaflets reduced to tendrils with good standability. Released by Agriculture Canada, Morden in 1985. Production of certified seed is limited to Canada. Distribution by SeCan 512 - 885, Meadowlands drive, Ottawa, Ont. K2C 3N2.

Victoria - High seed yield, early, with medium length vines. Seeds are small and cream-colored. Developed by Svalof A. B. Plant Breeding Station, Sweden. Seed is distributed by Bonis and Company, Ltd., Lindsay, Ontario. Plant variety protection is pending.

Bellevue - Medium in maturity and vine length. Seeds are medium size and cream-colored with a smooth seed coat. It has a higher yield than Century or Trapper and is susceptible to Ascochyta and Septoria leaf blotch. Seed was developed by Agriculture Canada, and is distributed by SeCan 512 - 885, Meadowlands Drive, Ottawa, Ont. K2C 3N2.

Helka - Early in maturity and medium vine length. It has a semi-leafless, bush-type growth habit and is green-seeded. It is resistant to Ascochyta, Fusarium and BYMV. It was developed by Hankkija, Finland and distributed by NorFarm Seeds, Box 37, Roseau, MN 56751.

Impala - Medium to early in maturity, leafless with cream-colored seed. It is resistant to Ascochyta race C and was developed by Cebeco-Handelsraade (Netherlands). Seed is distributed by International Seeds, Box 168, Halsey, OR 97348.

Kimo - Early to medium in maturity with short vines. It has green, medium-large seed and is semi-leafless. It was developed by Hankkija, Finland and was distributed by NorFarm Seeds, Box 37, Roseau, MN 56751.

Renata - Medium in maturity, with large cream-colored seed and semi-leafless plant type. It is highly resistant to Fusarium wilt and is resistant to Ascochyta race C and Downy Mildew. The variety was released by Cebeco-Handelsraade (Netherlands) and is distributed by International Seeds, Box 168, Halsey, OR 97348.

Solara - Medium in maturity, short with very large bluish seed. It is semi-leafless and is resistant to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta race C. Developed by Cebeco-Handelsraade (Netherlands) and distributed by International Seeds, Box 168, Halsey, OR 97348.

Other varieties:

Maple - Medium to low in yield, late, with long vines. The variety has large olive-colored seed with brown mottle and indistinct hilum. This is an excellent variety for pigeon feed use generally grown under contract when buyers offer a higher price than for recommended varieties.

Tara- High in yield and medium maturity with long-vines. Seeds are medium in size and cream-colored. It has satisfactory cooking quality but the irregular seed shape is undesirable. It is resistant to powdery mildew. Released by Agriculture Canada, Morden in 1978. Production of certified seed limited to Canada.

Progeta - A leading white pea variety in the United Kingdom is resistant to pea bacterial blight, Race 2. Distributed by Sharpes and Company; U.K.

F. Weed Control:

Weed competition may severely reduce yield of field pea. Heavy weed infestations should be controlled by cultural or chemical measures prior to rotating into field pea, and prior to planting.

1. Mechanical control:

Harrowing immediately after seeding, will destroy newly emerged shallow seeded annual grasses and broadleaves. Cultivation should be avoided during pea emergence and for several days after emergence to permit rooting and stand establishment. If post-emergence harrowing is necessary, it should be done when field pea are in the 4 to 6-leaf stage and should be viewed as a method of last resort for weed control.

2. Chemical control:

a. Pre-plant incorporated (PPI):

Treflan 4E (trifluralin) can be applied at a rate of 0.5 qt/acre, before planting, for the control of annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds. Treflan may be weak on wild mustard, smartweed, common ragweed, velvetleaf, and black nightshade. Treflan should be incorporated two or three in. within 24 hours of after application.

Command 4E (clomazone) can be applied at a rate of 1 pt/acre prior to planting. Command should be incorporated immediately after planting to minimize off-site movement and users should maintain a proper distance from susceptible species as detailed on the label. This herbicide controls annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds but is weak on pigweed and only partially controls cocklebur and black nightshade.

b. Preemergence herbicides:

Lasso 4E (alachlor) can be applied at a rate of 2 qt/acre. It should be sprayed after planting before field pea and weeds emerge. Alachlor controls most annual grasses and many broadleaf weeds including black nightshade but it is weak on velvetleaf, mustard, smartweed, and common lambsquarter. Preplant treatment also provides reasonable yellow nutsedge control.

Ramrod 4F (propachlor) can be applied at a rate of 4 qt/acre and is used to control many annual grasses.

c. Post-emergent herbicides:

Basagran 4E (bentazon) can be applied postemergence at a rate of 0.75 to 1.0 qt/acre. Apply when annual broadleaves are small and actively growing, but only after three pairs of pea leaves (usually four nodes) are present. Do not include crop oil in spray mixture. Provides excellent control of velvetleaf, wild mustard and common ragweed. Basagran will give some control of yellow nutsedge and erratic control of Canada thistle.

Can-trol or Thistrol 2E (MCPB) can be applied at rates of 1 to 2 qt/acre. This herbicide should be applied before the flowering stage when the crop has 6 to 12 nodes and before thistles are 9 in. tall. MCPB controls many annual broadleaf weeds and inhibits Canada thistle bud formation. Canada thistle buds may reduce market quality of field pea. MCPB is weak on smartweeds, mustards, and black nightshade.

Paraquat 1.5E (Gramoxone) can be applied at a rate of 3 to 5 pt/acre before or after seeding but before pea emergence. Paraquat is a non-selective herbicide and will injure newly emerging field pea if they come in control with this herbicide.

Roundup 3E (glyphosate) can be applied at a rate of 2 qt/acre before or after seeding but before crop emergence. Roundup, like paraquat, is a non-selective herbicide so it is important to not contact the crop. Roundup provides excellent control of quackgrass and good suppression of Canada thistle and other perennials.

Note: Additional information on weed control in field pea may be obtained from: Commercial Vegetable Weed, Insect and Disease Control Guide: Beans and Field pea, 1989 Minnesota Extension Service, AG-FO-1881, and Commercial Vegetable Production in Wisconsin, 1990, University of Wisconsin-Extension, A3422 or similar publications from other states extension service. Be sure to check labels of all herbicides for up-to-date clearance on field peas.

G. Diseases and Their Control:

Seed rots are soil-borne fungal diseases caused by Pythium, Fusarium solani or Rhiziotonia solani. Seed is infested shortly after planting and seedlings fail to emerge. Treatment of seed with a fungicide can be a cost effective control.

Fusarium root rot is favored by warm dry soil conditions, excessive compaction and low soil fertility. Initial infections usually occur where the cotyledons are attached to the stem. Symptoms include a brownish-red discoloration of the vascular tissue. The vascular tissue of the root may also be discolored (reddish streaks). Control is best achieved by planting field pea in a four year rotation with other crops.

Ascochyta blight is seed-borne and is characterized by purplish to black, streaky, and irregularly shaped lesions on the stem. Septoria blight, a fungus, causes the leaves to appear yellowish and shrunken. Bacterial blight produces water-soaked lesions on all parts of the plant, which may appear creamy and slimy under highly humid conditions. Powdery and downy mildew cause leaves to turn yellow under cool, moist conditions. Warm dry weather reduces mildew growth.

Pea mosaic, a viral disease, induces severe stunting and mottling of leaves with streaks of yellowing on the stems. Early infection causes the plant to die. Crop rotation is recommended for control.

H. Insects and Their Control:

Insect pests have generally not caused serious problems in field pea production areas. However, the following insects may, on occasion, be found in field pea fields:

Pea aphids occasionally become numerous and cause injury by sucking plant sap which cause foliage and blossoms to wilt and shrivel. Aphids may also be vectors for viral diseases. The pea aphid is light green in color, and if necessary, may be controlled with an insecticide.

Loopers, army worms and alfalfa caterpillars are foliage feeders and may occasionally become a problem in field pea fields. If necessary, these insects may be controlled with an insecticide.

Seedcorn maggot feeds on sprouting seed or on seedlings. To control this insect, coat the seed with an insecticidal seed treatment.

Note: Information on insects obtained from "Commercial Vegetable Weed, Insect, and Disease Control Guide, 1989, Minnesota Extension Service, AG-FO-1881. Information on specific insecticides may be obtained from this or similar state extension publications.

I. Harvesting:

Field pea plants are prostrate vines at maturity and may be difficult to harvest. The crop is usually harvested the same time as wheat, or as soon as the seed is hard. Seeds may shatter if harvesting is delayed, however, losses from shattering may be reduced by harvesting field pea before all pods are dry. Harvesting at night or early morning, when pods are wet with dew, will also reduce shattering. Field pea do not ripen as uniformly as other crops, therefore it may be necessary to harvest while there are green leaves and pods remaining. The coloring may bleach out of the seeds if pods lay on the moist ground for long periods. Bleaching of seed is undesirable and will reduce seed quality.

Field pea may be swathed or straight combined. If swathing just prior to full maturity, a light roller can be placed behind the swather to help prevent wind damage. Field pea may be swathed when fully mature and should be combined immediately to prevent wind damage. Straight combining will eliminate the possibility of windrow damage caused by high winds and reduce losses at the cutter bar. A desiccant may be used to enhance crop drying prior to combining. It is essential to maintain a low cutter bar height to reduce losses. Floating cutter bars and raking-type pickup reels are available to increase harvest efficiency. To reduce seed shattering, the combine reel should be adjusted to a low speed.

J. Drying and Storage:

Federal grain standards have been established for whole and split field pea. Splitting involves a mechanical process and results in separation of the two seed cotyledons. After dockage has been removed, the seeds are graded. Reductions in grade may be the result of weevil damage, heat damage, bleached or shriveled seeds and seeds with cracked seed coats. A certain percent of splits are allowed in whole field pea and a certain percentage of whole field pea is allowed in split field pea. For safe storage, dry field pea should be maintained at 14% moisture.

VI. Yield Potential and Performance Results:

Field peas ranged from 1700 to 3000 lb/acre in Minnesota tests, Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3. Yield and agronomic characteristics for field pea in Minnesota, 1981-851.
Variety Yield2 Seed Protein Days from planting to: Height
      Bloom Maturity  
  (lb/acre) (%) ---- days ---- (in.)
Century 1960 26 64 104 57
Lenca 2334 25 63 102 50
Miranda 3008 23 57 97 21
Paloma 2780 25 59 99 21
Procon 2950 25 58 97 27
Trapper 1741 27 64 106 55
Belinda 2813 25 58 99 20
Tipu 2544 24 63 105 54
Victoria 2368 25 59 100 46
LSD 5% 91        
1Average of trials located at Becker, Grand Rapids, Crookston and Roseau,Minnesota, 60 lb/bu.
2
10% moisture basis.

Table 4. Yield and agronomic characteristics of field pea varieties at Roseau, MN, 1989.
Variety Yield Seed Protein Days from planting to: Height
      Bloom Maturity  
  (lb/acre) (%) ---- days ---- (in.)
Bellevue 17711 26 56 - 64
Helka 2223 24 64 86 64
Impala 1744 24 54 88 53
Kimo 2409 23 53 87 59
Miranda 1060 25 52 87 59
Procon 1585 24 53 85 51
Renata 1204 25 52 84 54
Solara 1472 24 53 86 49
Tipu 1529 24 55 88 73
Titan 1037 24 55 93 56
Trapper 1106 28 55 93 68
LSD 5% 430        
110% moisture basis.

VII. Economics of Production and Markets:

World-wide demand for field pea is strong, however the European Community may regulate field pea imports more severely in the near future and this is expected to weaken demand. In 1986, in the United States the f.o.b. warehouse price for dry field pea was over $10.00/cwt. Growers have reported gross incomes of $300/acre growing field pea for seed. Field pea sold wholesale for $8 to 9/cwt. could gross $200 or more/acre. Growers who anticipate selling field pea to a wholesale buyer should contact that buyer prior to planting to determine which varieties are best suited for the area and which are in the highest demand.

U.S. plantings of dry field pea (yellow) in 1989 are estimated at over 30,000 acres. Canadian plantings (1989) totaled over 450,000 acres.

Table 5. Summary of Estimated Production Costs and Returns for Field Pea. Roseau County, Minnesota, September 1990.
Item Unit Price ($) Quantity Amount ($)
Income Bu. 5.00 42.00 210.00
Direct Expenses        
Fertilizer Acre 30.25 1.00 30.25
Herbicides Acre 16.05 1.00 16.05
Seed Acre 33.00 1.00 33.00
Fuel Gal. 0.80 9.36 7.49
Repair & Maintenance Acre 10.10 1.00 10.16
Interest Acre 0.12 96.94 3.08
Total Direct Expenses       100.02
Returns Over Direct Expenses       109.98
Allocated Overhead Acre 77.48 1.00 77.48
Allocated Full-time Labor Hour 8.00 2.10 16.34
Crop Loss/Insurance Acre 0.03 210.00 6.30
Total Expenses and Costs       200.13
Returns Above Total Expenses and Costs       9.87
Computed average total cost to grow a bu. of field pea = $4.77

VIII. Information Sources:

Field Pea. 1983. Mas Yamaguchi. In World Vegetables; Principles, Production and Nutritive Values. AVI Publishing Co., Inc., Westport, Connecticut.

Production of Field Peas in Canada. 1989. S.T. Ali-Khan and R. C. Zimmer. Agric. Canada Pub. 1710/E. Agric. Canada, Ottawa K1A 0C7.

Dry Pea Production in Saskatchewan. 1988. A. E. Slinkard, B. N. Drew and F. A. Holm. Pub. 225. Extension and Community Relations, Univ. of Saskatchewan.

Winter Pea/Winter Cereal Mixtures as Potential Forage Crops in Northern Idaho. 1985. G. A. Murray, D. L. Auld and J. B. Swensen. Bull. 638. Agric. Exp. Sta., University of Idaho.

Transporting and Marketing Idaho's Dry Edible Peas and Lentils. 1987. W. Harris and N. Meyer. Bull. 667. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Idaho.

USA Dry Pea and Lentil Industry. P.O. Box 8566, Moscow, Idaho. 83843.

Pulse or Grain Legume Crops for Minnesota. 1975. R. G. Robinson. Station Bull. 513. Agric. Exp. Sta., University of Minnesota.

Dry Pea, Lentil and Chickpea Production in Northern Idaho. 1987. Bull. 664. G. A. Murray, K. D. Kephart, L. E. O'Keeffe, D. L. Auld and R. H. Callihan. Agric. Exp. Sta., University of Idaho.

Commercial Vegetable Weed, Insect, and Disease Control Guide: Beans and Peas. 1990. L. Waters, Jr., D. M. Noetzel, F. L. Pfleger and L. Hertz. AG-FO-1881. Minnesota Ext. Ser., University of Minnesota.

Varietal Trials of Farm Crops. 1990. L. H. Hardman, Ed. Minnesota Report 24. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Minnesota.

Guide to Computer Programmed Soil Test Recommendations for Field Crops. 1986. G. W. Rehm, C. J. Rosen, J. F. Moncreif, W. E. Fenster, and J. Grava. Agric. Bull. 0519, Minnesota Extension Service, University of Minnesota.

Commercial Vegetable Production in Wisconsin. 1990. A3422. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

References to pesticide products in this publication are for your convenience and are not an endorsement of one product over other similar products. You are responsible for using pesticides according to the manufacturer's current label directions. Follow directions exactly to protect people and the environment from pesticide exposure. Failure to do so violates the law.


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